To use htar within the HPSS environment, users are required to have the valid Kerberos credentials.

The following is the man page of how to use htar.

                          htar - HPSS tar utility
                          Manipulates HPSS-resident tar-format archives.

                          htar  -{c|t|x|X}  -f Archive [-?]  [-B] [-E]  [-L  inputlist] [-h]  [-m] [-o]
                                 [-d  debuglevel] [-p] [-v]  [-V] [-w]
                                 [-I  {IndexFile | .suffix}] [-Y  [Archive COS ID][:Index File COS ID]]
                                 [-S  Bufsize] [-T  Max Threads] [Filespec | Directory ...]

                          htar  is a utility which manipulates HPSS-resident archives
                          by writing files to,  or retrieving files from the High
                          Performance Storage System (HPSS).  Files written to HPSS
                          are in the POSIX 1003.1 "tar" format, and may be retrieved
                          from HPSS, or read by native tar programs.

                          For those unfamiliar with HPSS, an introduction can be found
                          on the web at

                          The local files used by the htar command are represented by
                          the Filespec parameter. If the Filespec parameter refers to
                          a directory, then that directory, and, recursively, all
                          files and directories within it, are referenced as well.

                          Unlike the standard Unix "tar" command, there is no default
                          archive device; the "-f Archive" flag is required.

                     Archive and Member files
                          Throughout the htar documentation, the term "archive file"
                          is used to refer to the tar-format  file, which is named by
                          the "-f filename" command line option. The term "member
                          file" is used to refer to individual files contained within
                          the archive file.

                     WHY USE HTAR
                          htar has been optimized for creation of archive files
                          directly in HPSS, without having to go through the
                          intermediate step of first creating the archive file on
                          local disk storage, and then copying the archive file to
                          HPSS via some other process such as ftp or hsi. The program
                          uses multiple threads and a sophisticated buffering scheme
                          in order to package member files into in-memory buffers,
                          while making use of the high-speed network striping
                          capabilities of HPSS.

                          In most cases, it will be signficantly  faster to use htar
                          to create a tar file in HPSS than to either create a local
                          tar file and then copy it to HPSS, or to use tar piped into
                          ftp (or hsi) to create the tar file directly in HPSS.

                          In addition, htar creates a separate index file, (see next
                          section) which contains the names and locations of all of
                          the  member files in the archive (tar) file.  Individual
                          files and directories in the archive can be randomly
                          retrieved without having to read through the archive file.
                          Because the index file is usually smaller than the archive
                          file, it is possible that the index file may reside in HPSS
                          disk cache  even though the archive file has been moved
                          offline to tape; since htar uses the index file for listing
                          operations, it may be possible to list the contents of the
                          archive file without having to incur the time delays of
                          reading the archive file back onto disk cache from tape.

                          It is also possible to create an index file for a tar file
                          that was not originally created by htar.

                     HTAR Index File
                          As part of the process of creating an archive file on HPSS,
                          htar also creates an index file, which is a directory of the
                          files contained in the archive. The Index File includes the
                          position of member files within the archive, so that files
                          and/or directories can be randomly retrieved from the
                          archive without having to read through it sequentially.  The
                          index file is usually significantly smaller in size than the
                          archive file, and may often reside in HPSS disk cache even
                          though the archive file resides on tape. All htar operations
                          make use of an index file.

                          It is also possible to create an index file for an archive
                          file that was not created by htar, by using the "Build
                          Index" [-X] function (see below).

                          By default, the index filename is created by adding ".idx"
                          as a suffix to the Archive name specified by the -f
                          parameter.  A different suffix or index filename may be
                          specified by the "-I " option, as described below.

                          By default, the Index File is assumed to reside in the same
                          directory as the Archive File.  This can be changed by
                          specifying a relative or absolute pathname via the -I
                          option. The Index file's relative pathname is relative to
                          the Archive File directory unless an absolute pathname is

                     HTAR Consistency File
                          HTAR writes an extra file as the last member file of each
                          Archive, with a name similar to:


                          This file is used to verify the consistency of the Archive
                          File and the Index File.  Unless the file is explicitly
                          specified, HTAR does not extract this file from the Archive
                          when the -x action is selected.  The file is listed,
                          however, when the -t action is selected.

                     Tar File Restrictions
                          When specifying path names that are greater than 100
                          characters for a file (POSIX 1003.1 USTAR) format, remember
                          that the path name is composed of a prefix bufferFR, a /
                          (slash), and a name buffer.

                          The prefix buffer can be a maximum of 155 bytes and the name
                          buffer can hold a maximum of 100 bytes. Since some
                          implementations of TAR require the prefix and name buffers
                          to terminate with a null (' ') character, htar enforces the
                          restriction that the effective prefix buffer length is 154
                          characters (+ trailing zero byte), and the name buffer
                          length is 99 bytes (+ trailing zero byte). If the path name
                          cannot be split into these two parts by a slash, it cannot
                          be archived. This limitation is due to the structure of the
                          tar archive headers, and must be maintained for compliance
                          with standards and backwards compatibility. In addition, the
                          length of a destination for a hard or symbolic link ( the
                          'link name') cannot exceed 100 bytes (99 characters + zero-
                          byte terminator).

                     HPSS Default Directories
                          The default directory for the Archive file is the HPSS home
                          directory for the DCE user.  An absolute or relative HPSS
                          path can optionally be specified for either the Archive file
                          or the Index file. By default, the Index file is created in
                          the same HPSS directory as the Archive file.

                     Use of Absolute Pathnames
                          Although htar does not restrict the use of absolute
                          pathnames (pathnames that begin with a leading "/") when the
                          archive is created, it will remove the leading / when files
                          are extracted from the archive.  All extracted files use
                          pathnames that are relative to the current working

                     HTAR USAGE
                          Two groups of flags exist for the htar command; "action"
                          flags and "optional" flags. Action flags specify the
                          operation to be performed by the htar command, and are
                          specified by one of the following:

                          -c, -t, -x, -X

                          One action flag must be selected in order for the htar
                          command to perform any useful function.

                     File specification (Filespec)
                          A file specification has one of the following forms:


                          WildcardPath is a path specification that includes standard
                          filename pattern-matching characters, as specified for the
                          shell that is being used to invoke htar.  The pattern-
                          matching characters are expanded by the shell and passed to
                          htar as command line arguments.

                     Action Flags
                          Action flags defined for htar are as follows:

                          -c   Creates a new HPSS-resident archive, and writes the
                               local files specified by one or more File parameters
                               into the archive. Warning: any pre-existing archive file
                               will be overwritten without prompting. This behavior
                               mimics that of the AIX tar utility.

                          -t   Lists the files in the order in which they appear in
                               the HPSS- resident archive.   Listable output is
                               written to standard output; all other output is written
                               to standard error.

                          -x   Extracts the files specified by one or more File
                               parameters from the HPSS-resident archive. If the File
                               parameter refers to a directory, the htar command
                               recursively extracts that directory and all of its
                               subdirectories from the archive.

                               If the File parameter is not specified, htar extracts
                               all of the files from the archive. If an archive
                               contains  multiple copies of the same file, the last
                               copy extracted overwrites  all previously extracted
                               copies. If the file being extracted does not already
                               exist on the system, it is created. If you have the
                               proper permissions, then htar command restores all
                               files and directories with the same owner and group IDs
                               as they have on the HPSS tar file. If you  do not have
                               the proper permissions, then files and directories are
                               restored with your owner and group IDs.

                          -X   builds a new index file by reading the entire tar file.
                               This operation is used either to reconstruct an index
                               for tar files whose Index File is unavailable (e.g.,
                               accidentally deleted), or for tar files that were not
                               originally created by htar.

                          -?   Displays htar's verbose help

                          -B   Displays block numbers as part of the listing (-t
                               option). This is normally used only for debugging.

                          -d debuglevel
                               Sets debug level (0 - N) for htar. 0 disables debug, 1
                               - n enable progressively higher levels of debug output.
                               5 is the highest level; anything > 5 is silently mapped
                               to 5.  0 is the default debug level.

                          -E   If present, specifies that a local file should be used
                               for the file specified by the "-f Archive" option.  If
                               not specified, then the archive file will reside in

                          -f Archive
                               Uses Archive as the name of archive to be read or
                               written. Note: This is a required parameter for htar,
                               unlike the standard tar utility, which uses a built-in
                               default name.

                               If the Archive variable specified is - (minus sign),
                               the tar command writes to standard output or reads from
                               standard input. If you write to standard output, the -I
                               option is mandatory, in order to specify an Index File,
                               which is copied to HPSS if the Archive file is
                               successfully written to standard output. [Note: this
                               behavior is deferred - reading from or writing to pipes
                               is not supported in the initial version of htar].

                          -h   Forces the htar command to follow symbolic links as if
                               they were normal files or directories. Normally, the
                               tar command does not follow symbolic links.

                          -I index_name
                               Specifies the index file name or suffix.  If the first
                               character of the index_name is a period, then
                               index_name is appended to the Archive name, e.g. "-f
                               the_htar -I .xdnx" would create an index file called
                               "the_htar.xndx".  If the first character is not a
                               period, then index_name is treated as a relative
                               pathname for the index file (relative to the Archive
                               file directory) if the pathname does not start with
                               "/", or an absolute pathname otherwise.

                               The default directory for the Index file is the same as
                               for the Archive file.  If a relative Index file
                               pathname is specifed, then it is appended to the
                               directory path for the Archive file.  For example, if
                               the Archive file resides in HPSS in the directory
                               "projects/prj/files.tar", then an Index file
                               specification of "-I projects/prj/files.old.idx" would
                               fail, because htar would look for the file in the
                               directory "projects/prj/projects/prj".  The correct
                               specification in this case is "-I files.old.idx".

                          -L InputList
                               Writes the files and directories listed in the
                               "InputList" file to the archive. Directories named in
                               the InputList file are not treated recursively. For
                               directory names contained in the InputList file, the
                               tar command writes only the directory entry to the
                               archive, not the files and subdirectories rooted in the
                               directory.  Note that "home directory" notation ("~")
                               is not expanded for pathnames contained in the
                               InputList file, nor are wildcard characters, such as
                               "*" and "?".

                          -m   Uses the time of extraction as the modification time.
                               The default is to preserve the modification time of the
                               files. Note that the modification time of directories
                               is not guaranteed to be preserved, since the operating
                               system may change the timestamp as the directory
                               contents are changed by extracting other files and/or
                               directories.  htar will explicitly set the timestamp on
                               directories that it extracts from the Archive, but not
                               on intermediate directories that are created during the
                               process of extracting files.

                          -o   Provides backwards compatibility with older versions
                               (non-AIX) of the tar command. When this flag is used
                               for reading, it causes the extracted file to take on
                               the User and Group ID (UID and GID) of the user running
                               the program, rather than those on the archive.  This is
                               the default behavior for the ordinary user. If htar is
                               being run as root, use of this option causes files to
                               be owned by root rather than the original user.

                          -p   Says to restore fields to their original modes,
                               ignoring the present umask. The setuid, setgid, and
                               tacky bit permissions are also restored to the user
                               with root user authority.

                          -S bufsize
                               Specifies the buffer size to use when reading or
                               writing the HPSS tar file.  The buffer size can be
                               specified as a value, or as kilobytes by appending any
                               of  "k","K","kb", or "KB" to the value.  It can also be
                               specified as megabytes by appending any of  "m" or "M"
                               or "mb" or "MB" to the value, for example, 23mb.

                          -T max_threads
                               Specifies the maximum number of threads to use when
                               copying local member files to the Archive file.  The
                               default is defined when htar is built; the release
                               value is 20.  The maximum number of threads actually
                               used is dependent upon the local file sizes, and the
                               size of the I/O buffers.  A good approximation is

                                  buffer size/average file size

                               If the -v or -V option is specified, then the maximum
                               number of local file threads  used while writing the
                               Archive file to HPSS is displayed when the transfer is

                          -V   "Slightly verbose" mode. If selected, file transfer
                               progress will be displayed in interactive mode. This
                               option should normally not be selected if verbose (-v)
                               mode is enabled, as the outputs for the two different
                               options are generated by separate threads, and may be
                               intermixed on the output.

                          -v   "Verbose" mode. For each file processed, displays a
                               one-character operation flag, and lists the name of
                               each file. The flag values displayed are:
                                   "a"  - file was added to the archive
                                   "x"  - file was extracted from the archive
                                   "i"  - index file entry was created (Build Index

                          -w   Displays the action to be taken, followed by the file
                               name, and then waits for user confirmation. If the
                               response is affirmative, the action is performed. If
                               the response is not affirmative, the file is ignored.

                          -Y auto | [Archive CosID][:IndexCosID]
                               Specifies the HPSS Class of Service ID to use when
                               creating a new Archive and/or Index file. If the
                               keyword auto is specified, then the HPSS hints
                               mechanism is used to select the archive COS, based upon
                               the file size.  If -Y cosID  is specified, then cosID
                               is the numeric COS ID to be used for the Archive File.

                               If -Y :IndexCosID is specified, then IndexCosID is the
                               numeric COS ID to be  used for the Index File.  If both
                               COS IDs are specified, the entire parameter must be
                               specified as a single string with no embedded spaces,
                               e.g. "-Y 40:30".

                     HTAR Memory Restrictions
                          When writing to an HPSS archive, the htar command uses a
                          temporary file (normally in /tmp) and maintains in memory a
                          table of files; you receive an error message if htar cannot
                          create the temporary file, or if there is not enough memory
                          available to hold the internal tables.

                     HTAR Environment
                          HTAR should be compiled and run within a non-DCE HPSS environment.

                     Miscellaneous Notes:
                          1. The maximum size of a single Member file within the
                          Archive is approximately 8 GB, due to restrictions in the
                          format of the tar header.  HTAR does not impose any
                          restriction on the total size of the Archive File when it is
                          written to HPSS; however, space quotas or other system
                          restrictions may limit the size of the Archive File when it
                          is written to a local file (-E option).

                          2.  HTAR will optionally write to a local file; however, it
                          will not write to any file type except "regular files".  In
                          particular, it is not suitable for writing to magnetic tape.
                          To write to a magnetic tape device, use the "tar" or "cpio"

                     Exit Status
                          This command returns the following exit values:

                          0       Successful completion.

                          >0      An error occurred.

                          1.   To write the file1 and file2 files to a new archive
                               called "files.tar" in the current HPSS home directory,

                                      htar -cf files.tar file1 file2

                          2.   To extract all files from the project1/src directory in
                               the Archive file called proj1.tar, and use the time of
                               extraction as the modification time,  enter:

                                     htar -xm -f proj1.tar project1/src

                          3.   To display the names of the files in the out.tar
                               archive file within the HPSS home directory, enter:

                                     htar -tvf out.tar

                     Related Information
                          For file archivers: the cat command, dd command, pax
                          command.  For HPSS file transfer programs: pftp, nft, hsi

                          File Systems Overview for System Management in AIX Version 4
                          System Management Guide: Operating System and Devices
                          explains file system types, management, structure, and

                          Directory Overview in AIX Version 4 Files Reference explains
                          working with directories and path names.

                          Files Overview in AIX Version 4 System User's Guide:
                          Operating System and Devices provides information on working
                          with files.

                          HPSS web site at

                     Bugs and Limitations:
                          - There is no way to specify relative Index file pathnames
                          that are not rooted in the Archive file directory without
                          specifying an absolute path.

                          - The initial implementation of HTAR does not provide the
                          ability to append, update or remove files.  These features,
                          and others, are planned enhancements for future versions.